Kinetics of Crude-oil Combustion in Porous Media Interpreted Using Isoconversional Methods

Kinetics of Crude-oil Combustion in Porous Media Interpreted Using Isoconversional Methods

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One method to access unconventional, heavy-oil and natural bitumen resources as well as waterflood residual oil is to apply in situ combustion (ISC) to oxidize in place a small fraction of the hydrocarbon thereby providing heat to reduce oil viscosity and pressure that enhances recovery. ISC is also attractive because it provides the opportunity to upgrade oil in-situ by increasing the API gravity and decreasing, for instance, sulfur content. Experimental analysis of crude-oil oxidation kinetics provides parameters, such as activation energy, for modeling and optimization of ISC processes. The complex nature of petroleum as a multi-component mixture and multi-step character of oxidation reactions complicates substantially the kinetic analysis of crude-oil. Isoconversional techniques provide model-free methods for estimating activation energy and naturally deconvolve multi-step reactions. In addition, isoconversional methods are also useful as a screening tool to recognize the burning characteristics of different oils. By using experimentally determined combustion kinetics of different oil samples along with combustion tube results, we show that isoconversional analysis of ramped temperature oxidation data is useful to predict combustion-front propagation. It also provides new insight into the nature of the reactions occurring during ISC. Ramped temperature oxidation (RTO) tests with effluent gas analysis are conducted to probe ISC reaction kinetics along with isothermal coke formation experiments. The role of oxygen during coke formation reactions (i.e., fuel formation for ISC) is investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of intermediate reaction products. The XPS data is analyzed along with companion RTO experiments to obtain a simplified multi-step reaction scheme. Synthetic cases illustrate the connection between a proposed reaction scheme for oil/matrix pairs and one-dimensional combustion front propagation. Analysis of experimental results illustrate that the reaction scheme is capable of reproducing experimental results including the basic trends in oxygen consumption and carbon oxides production for RTO experiments as a function of heating rate for both good and poor ISC candidates. The combination of XPS and RTO studies indicates that the quality (or reactivity) of coke formed during the process is a function of oxygen presence/absence.Usera#39;s guide fma 1600-a mass flow meter. Usera#39;s guide, Omega Engineering, Stamford, CT, USA, 2008. C.R. Evans, M.A. Rogers, and N.J.L. Bailey. ... renceguide.pdf, 2011. Joseph H. Flynn and Leo A. Wall. A quick, direct method for theanbsp;...

Title:Kinetics of Crude-oil Combustion in Porous Media Interpreted Using Isoconversional Methods
Publisher:Stanford University - 2011

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